Real-World Use of Azathioprine Metabolites Changes Clinical Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Background: Thiopurines such as 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine have complex metabolism, resulting in significant inter-individual differences in clinical efficacy and risk of drug toxicity, making conventional weight-based dosing inaccurate and potentially unsafe. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of thiopurine metabolites improves clinical outcomes through dose optimization and toxicity monitoring. Despite evidence for TDM, use is limited, due in part to test availability and awareness. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to investigate how thiopurine TDM impacts clinical management of IBD patients and (2) to evaluate proportion of patients outside therapeutic 6TGN levels or exhibiting signs of toxicity.
Methods: Patients who received thiopurine TDM as part of routine care underwent chart review of demographics, disease activity, medication dosing, metabolite levels, and adverse events. Changes in clinical management following TDM were measured. Additionally, we conducted a retrospective review of clinical decision making blinded and unblinded to TDM result.
Results: A total of 92 IBD patients were included. Levels of 6TGN were therapeutic in 29% of patients. 6TGN levels correlated weakly with weight-based dosing ( r 2 = 0.057, P = 0.02). Adverse reactions were observed in 6.5%. TDM informed clinical management in 64%. Significantly more changes to clinical management occurred in those with active disease than in remission (73% versus 48%; P = 0.02) and in those on mono- versus combination therapy (48% versus 27.5%; P = 0.03).
Conclusions: TDM informs clinical decision making in over two-thirds of patients. The demonstrated poor efficacy of weight-based dosing and impact of TDM on clinical management contributes to the evidence supporting the need for greater availability and uptake of thiopurine TDM.
LEGGI TUTTO https://doi.org/10.1093/jcag/gwaa005